Ceratolithaceae


Ancestry: Coccolithophores -> Nannolith families inc sed -> Ceratolithaceae
Sister taxa: Ceratolithaceae, Lapideacassaceae, Lithostromationaceae, Nannolith genera inc sed, Rhomboasteraceae,

Short diagnosis: Horseshoe-shaped rod-shaped nannoliths and simple hoop-coccoliths formed in one phase of life cycle, planolith heterococcoliths in the other.


Daughter taxa (blue => in age window 0-300Ma) Granddaughter taxa
Ceratoliths non-birefringent or only weakly birefringent

Ceratoliths strongly birefringent

Ceratoliths non-birefringent or only weakly birefringent; left arm straight and with nodes

Elongate nannoliths formed of three blades, with c-axis perpendicular to length. Usually curved and asymmetric. Shows low to moderate birefringence.

Elongate, tri-radiate nannoliths formed of a single calcite crystal with the c-axis parallel to the length of the nannolith. Nannolith straight with bilateral or trilateral symmetry. Shows high birefringence.

Taxonomy:

Citation: Ceratolithaceae Norris, 1965 emend Young & Bown 2014
Rank: Family
Synonyms: Triquetrorhabdulaceae Lipps 1969 - cf Young & Bown 2014
Notes & discussion: The scope of the family was broadened by Young & Bown to include the genera Triquetrorhabdulus and Orthorhabdus which had previously been placed inter own genus but which have been shown to be directly related (Theodoridis 1984, Raffi et all. 1998).

Farinacci & Howe catalog pages:

Short diagnosis: Horseshoe-shaped rod-shaped nannoliths and simple hoop-coccoliths formed in one phase of life cycle, planolith heterococcoliths in the other.


Morphology remarks: Family characterised by ornate nannoliths formed from a single calcite crystal unit, these maybe horseshoe-shaped, termed ceratoliths or rod-shapedand formed from three laths. The genera differ in nannolith shape and crystallographic orientations.

Evolution & Phylogeny: See Raffi et al. (1999) for description of key evolutionary relationships within this family

Biology & life-cycles: Classic observations of Norris (1965, 1971) showed that typically a single ceratolith was wrapped around the cell and that beyond the ceratolith a large coccosphere of hoop-shaped coccoliths sometimes occurs. These large coccospheres can contain up to four cells each with ceratoliths.
More recently, Alcober & Jordan (1997) observed C. cristatus hoop-shaped coccoliths inside coccospheres of ""Neosphaera coccolithomorpha"" planoliths, suggesting that ceratoliths, planoliths and hoop coccoliths may form during alternate phases of a complex life-cycle. These observations have been strongly confirmed by Young et al. (1998), Cros et al. (2000) and Sprengel & Young (2000). The “Neosphaera” planoliths show typical heterococcolith features, hence a likely hypothesis is that the ceratolith stage is equivalent to the holococcolith stage in other taxa, and so haploid (see also discussion in Young et al. 2005). Molecular genetic data and culture observations not yet available.

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: Total of range of species in this database
First occurrence (base): within Rupelian Stage (28.09-33.89Ma, base in Rupelian stage). Data source: Total of range of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:

References:

Alcober, J. & Jordan, R.W., (1997). An interesting association between Neosphaera coccolithomorpha and Ceratolithus cristatus (Haptophyta). European Journal of Phycology, 32: 91-93.

Cros, L.; Kleijne, A.; Zeltner, A.; Billard, C. & Young, J.R., (2000). New examples of holococcolith-heterococcolith combination coccospheres and their implications for coccolithophorid biology. Marine Micropaleontology, 39(1-4): 1-34.

Lipps, J.H., (1969). Triquetrorhabdulus and similar calcareous nannoplankton. Journal of Paleontology, 43: 1029-1032.

Norris, R.E., (1965). Living cells of Ceratolithus cristatus (Coccolithophorineae). Archiv für Protistenkunde, 108: 19-21.

Norris, R.E., (1971). Extant calcareous nannoplankton from the Indian Ocean. In: Farinacci, A. (Editor), Proceedings of the Second Planktonic conference, Roma. E. J. Brill, Leiden, pp. 899-910.

Raffi, I.; Backman, J. & Rio, D., (1998). Evolutionary trends of tropical calcareous nannofossils in the late Neogene. Marine Micropaleontology, 35(1): 17-41.

Sprengel, C. & Young, J.R., (2000). First direct documentation of associations of Ceratolithus cristatus ceratoliths, hoop-coccoliths and Neosphaera coccolithomorpha planoliths. Marine Micropaleontology, 39(1-4): 39-41.

Theodoridis, S., (1984). Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Miocene and revision of the helicoliths and discoasters. Utrecht Micropaleontological Bulletin, 32: 1-271.

Young, J.R. & Bown, P.R., (2014). Some emendments to calcareous nannoplankton taxonomy. Journal of Nannoplankton Research, 33(1): 39-46.

Young, J.R.; Jordan, R.W. & Cros, L., (1998). Notes on nannoplankton systematics and life-cycles - Ceratolithus cristatus, Neosphaera coccolithomorpha and Umbilicosphaera sibogae. Journal of Nannoplankton Research, 20(2): 89-99.

Young, J.R.; Geisen, M. & Probert, I., (2005). A review of selected aspects of coccolithophore biology with implications for palaeobiodiversity estimation. Micropaleontology, 51(4): 267-288.


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Ceratolithaceae compiled by Jeremy R. Young, Paul R. Bown, Jacqueline A. Lees viewed: 22-7-2017

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