Pleurochrysidaceae


Ancestry: Coccolithophores -> Coccolithales -> Pleurochrysidaceae
Sister taxa: Coccolithaceae, Calcidiscaceae, Hymenomonadaceae, Pleurochrysidaceae,

Short diagnosis: Neritic; coccoliths are narrow-rimmed placoliths with obviously interlocking V and R units, open central areas


Daughter taxa (blue => in age window 0-300Ma) Granddaughter taxa
Coccoliths elliptical narrow-rimmed placoliths with complex rim structure, open central area

Taxonomy:

Citation: Pleurochrysidaceae Fresnel & Billard, 1991
Rank: Family
Notes & discussion: At one time species were assigned to either Cricosphaera or Pleurochrysis on the basis of their life-cycles. Following revisions of Jordan et al. (1993) the family is now monogeneric.

Farinacci & Howe catalog pages:

Short diagnosis: Neritic; coccoliths are narrow-rimmed placoliths with obviously interlocking V and R units, open central areas


Morphology remarks: Coccoliths are formed of two cycles of tightly interlocked anvil-shaped crystal-units. V-unit forms distal shield and tube. R-unit forms proximal shield and small element on inside of tube (Marsh 1999). Central area open. Coccoliths with this structure have been termed cricoliths. Coccospheres large with numerous liths, monomorphic.

Evolution & Phylogeny: This family was included in the Coccolithales by Young & Bown (1997) since the rim structure appears to be a simplified version of that of the Coccolithaceae. This is supported by the detailed analysis of coccolith structure of Marsh (1999) and molecular genetic data, (Edvardsen et al., 2000; Fujiwara et al., 2001; Sáez et al. 2004)

Ecology & Biogeography: Neritic

Biology & life-cycles: These species are neritic and easily isolated and maintained in culture., hence taxonomy is based on cultures. Diploid phase is motile and heterococcolith-bearing, haploid phase is non-calcifying, flagellate or benthic.
Key references: Gayral & Fresnel (1983) - life-cycle; van der Wal et al. (1983) - cytology; Fresnel & Billard (1991) - species overview; Marsh (1999) - coccolith ultrastructure.

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): Extant Data source: Total of range of species in this database
First occurrence (base): within No known fossil record modern (0.00-0.00Ma, base in stage). Data source: Total of range of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:

References:

Edvardsen, B.; Eikrem, W.; Green, J.C.; Andersen, R.A.; Moon-Van Der Staay, S.Y. & Medlin, L.K., (2000). Phylogenetic reconstructions of the Haptophyta inferred from 18S ribosomal DNA sequences and available morphological data. Phycologia, 39: 19-35.

Fresnel, J. & Billard, C., (1991). Pleurochrysis placolithoides sp. nov. (Prymnesiophiceae), a new marine coccolithophorid with remarks on the status of cricolith-bearing species. British Phycological Journal, 26: 67-80.

Fujiwara, S.; Tsuzuki, M.; Kawachi, M.; Minaka, N. & Inouye, I., (2001). Molecular phylogeny of the haptophyta based on the rbcL gene and sequence variation in the spacer region of the RUBISCO operon. Journal of Phycology, 37: 121-129.

Gayral, P. & Fresnel, J., (1983). Description, sexualité et cycle de développment d'une nouvelle coccolithophoracée (Prymnesiophyceae): Pleurochrysis pseudoroscoffensis sp. nov. Protistologica, 19(2): 245-261.

Jordan, R.W.; Kleijne, A. & Heimdal, B.R., (1993). Proposed changes to the classification system of coccolithophorids. III. International Nannoplankton Association Newsletter, 15(1): 18-22.

Marsh, M.E., (1999). Coccolith crystals of Pleurochrysis carterae: Crystallographic faces, organisation and development. Protoplasma, 207: 54-66.

Sáez, A.G.; Probert, I.; Young, J.R.; Edvardsen, B.; Wenche, E. & Medlin, L.K., (2004). A review of the phylogeny of the Haptophyta. In: Thierstein, H.R. and Young, J.R. (Editors), Coccolithophores - from molecular processes to global impact. Springer, pp. 251-270.

van der Wal, P.; de Jong, E.W.; Westbroek, P.; de Bruijn, W.C. & Mulder-Stapel, A.A., (1983). Polysaccharide localization, coccolith formation, and Golgi dynamics in the coccolithophorid Hymenomonas carterae. Journal of Ultrastructural Research, 85: 139-158.

van der Wal, P.; de Jong, E.W.; Westbroek, P.; de Bruijn, W.C. & Mulder-Stapel, A.A., (1983). Ultrastructural polysaccharide localization in calcifying and naked cells of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi. Protoplasma, 118: 157-168.

Young, J.R. & Bown, P.R., (1997). Cenozoic calcareous nannoplankton classification. Journal of Nannoplankton Research, 19(1): 36-47.


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Pleurochrysidaceae compiled by Jeremy R. Young, Paul R. Bown, Jacqueline A. Lees viewed: 21-8-2017

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