Catapsydrax


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> spinose -> Globigerinidae -> Catapsydrax
Sister taxa: Catapsydrax, Eoglobigerina, Globigerina, Globigerinatheka, Globorotaloides, Globoturborotalita, Guembelitrioides, Orbulinoides, Paragloborotalia, Parasubbotina, Pseudoglobigerinella, Subbotina, Turborotalita,
Daughter taxa (blue => in age window 0-300Ma)
Catapsydrax unicavus is distinguished from C. africanus by its less inflated bulla with only one infralaminal aperture and from Catapsydrax dissimilis by its small compact test and bulla with just one infralaminal aperture. Catapsydrax globiformis has a spherical-shaped test with a low, slightly inflated bulla with small circular, infralaminal apertures.
Catapsydrax africanus is distinguished from C. globiformis by its less
spherical test and by having a more inflated bulla that has larger, more open, infralaminal apertures. Catapsydrax howei is larger and has a larger, still more inflated bulla with large circular, infralaminal apertures.

Catapsydrax globiformis is distinguished from C. africanus by its nearly spherical test with thickened walls, less inflated bulla, and smaller infralaminal apertures. Catapsydrax howei is larger and has large circular, infralaminal apertures around its strongly inflated bulla.
Catapsydrax howei is distinguished from C. africanus by its larger, more loosely coiled test, large globular bulla with large, circular, infralaminal apertures. Catapsydrax globiformis is smaller, has a spherical-shaped test with a low slightly inflated bulla with small circular, infralaminal apertures.

Taxonomy

Citation: Catapsydrax Bolli, Loeblich, and Tappan, 1957
Rank: Genus
Type species: Globigerina dissimilis Cushman and Bermúdez, 1937.
Taxonomic discussion: Catapsydrax was erected by Bolli, Loeblich and Tappan (1957, p. 36) to encompass several species that are characterized in the adult stage by an umbilical bulla with at least one accessory infralaminal aperture. Most of the included species were Miocene forms, but the holotype of the type species, C. dissimilis (Cushman and Bermúdez), is from the upper Eocene of Cuba. As described by Bolli, Loeblich and Tappan, this specimen, which is figured here in SEM for the first time (Plate 5.3, Figs. 18-20), has more than one infralaminal aperture around the bulla. Catapsydrax dissimilis is common in the Oligocene and ranges into the lower Miocene, where its highest occurrence datum is an important biostratigraphic marker horizon (Kennett and Srinivasan, 1983; Bolli and Saunders, 1985; Berggren and others, 1995).
The earliest species of Catapsydrax, C. unicavus, has a low, slightly inflated bulla covering the umbilicus with a single low arched infralaminal aperture. Subsequent species of Catapsydrax, C. dissimilis and C. stainforthi, developed two or more infralaminal apertural openings beneath a slightly inflated bulla. The infralaminal apertures, which are generally centered over the suture lines, are bordered by a continuous narrow thickened lip or rim in adult forms. Blow and Banner (1962) described a group of three species (which they placed in Globigerinita), from the upper Eocene (Zone E14) of Tanzania, namely G. africanus, G. globiformis, and G. howei. These taxa cannot be placed in Globigerinita because that genus is a microperforate taxon whereas Blow and Banner’s species have a cancellate wall texture. The species are all characterized by having a bulla with multiple infralaminar apertures and are here placed in Catapsydrax.
In our taxonomy, the first species of Catapsydrax is C. unicavus, which first appears in the lower Eocene. We take a broad concept of this taxon, including several species in synonymy with it, but at the same time we recognize that further work may reveal more taxonomic complexity that would justify splitting the species.
Several stable isotope studies (discussed below) have indicated that Catapsydrax unicavus and C. dissimilis are deep-dwelling species, consistently registering the most positive (coldest) ∂18O values of the assemblages in which they are found. The upper Eocene species described by Blow and Banner (1962) exhibit a range of morphologies that may indicate an evolutionary radiation into different parts of the water column, but this has yet to be tested. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Catapsydrax;

Type images:

Short diagnosis: Distinguished from Globorotaloides by the more compact, radially compressed morphology, with appressed inflated chambers in the final whorl, and the coarse cancellate ruber/sacculifer-type wall texture (as opposed to the sacculifer type wall in Globorotaloides). Most Globorotaloides lack the obligate bulla with a uniform continuous lip or rim bordering the infralaminal aperture(s) which is characteristic of Catapsydrax.
Distinguished from Subbotina and Globoturborotalita by the obligate bulla with infralaminal aperture(s).

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.

Description


Diagnostic characters: Distinguished from Globorotaloides by the more compact, radially compressed morphology, with appressed inflated chambers in the final whorl, and the coarse cancellate ruber/sacculifer-type wall texture (as opposed to the sacculifer type wall in Globorotaloides). Most Globorotaloides lack the obligate bulla with a uniform continuous lip or rim bordering the infralaminal aperture(s) which is characteristic of Catapsydrax.
Distinguished from Subbotina and Globoturborotalita by the obligate bulla with infralaminal aperture(s).
[Olsson et al. 2006]

Wall type: Coarsely cancellate, probably spinose in life, with tendency to develop a thick crust in some species. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Test morphology: Globular, lobulate, typically with 4 chambers in the final whorl. Chambers moderately inflated, appressed, with an umbilical bulla with one or more infralaminal apertures in the adult stage. The apertures are bordered by a continuous, narrow lip that may be thickened by gametogenetic calcification.
[Olsson et al. 2006]

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): within Priabonian Stage (33.89-37.75Ma, top in Priabonian stage). Data source: Total of range of species in this database
First occurrence (base): within Lutetian Stage (41.15-47.84Ma, base in Lutetian stage). Data source: Total of range of species in this database

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Olsson et al. 2006 - Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, chapter 5, p. 69

References:

Berggren, W.A.; Kent, D.V.; Swisher, I., C.C. & Aubry, M.-P., (1995). A revised Cenozoic geochronology and chronostratigraphy. In: Berggren, W.A. et al. (Editors), Geochronology, Time Scales and Global Stratigraphic Correlations. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) Special Publication No. 54.

Bermudez, P.J., (1937). Nuevas especies de Foraminiferos del Eoceno de las cercanias de Guanajay, provincia Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de Historia Natural, 11(4): 237-248.

Blow, W.H. & Banner, F.T., (1962). The mid-Tertiary (Upper Eocene to Aquitanian) Globigerinaceae. In: Eames, F.E. et al. (Editors), Fundamentals of mid-Tertiary Stratigraphical Correlation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 61-151.

Bolli, H.M. & Saunders, J.B., (1985). Oligocene to Holocene low latitude planktic foraminifera. In: Bolli, H.M., Saunders, J.B. and Perch-Neilsen, K. (Editors), Plankotn Stratigraphy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 155-262.

Kennett, J.P. & Srinivasan, M.S., (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1-265 pp.

Loeblich, A.R., Jr. & Tappan, H., (1957). Planktonic foraminifera of Paleocene and early Eocene Age from the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains. In: Loeblich, A.R., Jr. et al. (Editors), Studies in Foraminifera, U.S. National Museum Bulletin 215. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 173-198.

Olsson, R.K.; Pearson, P.N. & Huber, B.T., (2006). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Catapsydrax, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Paragloborotalia, Parasubbotina, and Pseudoglobigerinella n. gen. In: Pearson, P.N. et al. (Editors), Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Special Publication 41. Cushman Foundation Special Publication. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, pp. 67-110.


Catapsydrax compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 29-5-2017

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