Catapsydrax dissimilis

Classification: pf_cenozoic -> spinose -> Globigerinidae -> Catapsydrax -> Catapsydrax dissimilis
Sister taxa: C. africanus, C. dissimilis, C. globiformis, C. howei, C. unicavus, C. sp.,


Citation: Catapsydrax dissimilis Cushman & Bermudez 1937
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerina dissimilis
Synonyms: N.B. This is a commonly recognized species in the Oligocene and lower Miocene; here we present an abbreviated synonymy list.
Taxonomic discussion: Blow and Banner (1962) originally placed C. africanus in Globigerinita but this genus is a microperforate taxon, hence it is here placed in Catapsydrax. The species name is changed to agree in gender with the genus Catapsydrax (ICZN, Art. 31.2). Catapsydrax africanus, has a low, slightly inflated bulla covering the umbilicus with a single low arched aperture. The infralaminal aperture is bordered by a continuous narrow lip that becomes thickened with gametogenetic calcification. The wall texture of the ruber/sacculifer-type also becomes thickened by gametogenetic calcification. The wall texture of C. africanus is the same as in C. unicavus, and the infralaminal apertures are bordered by a continuous, narrow, thickened lip. In C. africanus the bulla is more inflated and the infralaminal apertures are larger. Blow (1979) regarded africanus as a subspecies of Catapsydrax echinatus Bolli, but that species is regarded as an aberrant acarininid in this work (see Berggren and others, Chapter 9, this volume). Catapsydrax africanus is a small form and has apparently been overlooked by many previous workers. We illustrate the holotype in SEM for the first time (Pl.5.1, Figs. 1-3) as well as newly collected specimens from the type locality (Pl.5.1, Figs. 4-7). [Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerina dissimilis;
Globigerina simulans;

Type images:

Short diagnosis: Catapsydrax africanus is distinguished from C. globiformis by its less
spherical test and by having a more inflated bulla that has larger, more open, infralaminal apertures. Catapsydrax howei is larger and has a larger, still more inflated bulla with large circular, infralaminal apertures.

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.


Diagnostic characters: Catapsydrax africanus is distinguished from C. globiformis by its less
spherical test and by having a more inflated bulla that has larger, more open, infralaminal apertures. Catapsydrax howei is larger and has a larger, still more inflated bulla with large circular, infralaminal apertures. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Wall type: Coarsely cancellate, probably spinose in life, with tendency to develop a thick crust in some species. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Test morphology: Globular, lobulate, typically with 4 chambers in the final whorl. Chambers moderately inflated, appressed, with an umbilical bulla with one or more infralaminal apertures in the adult stage. The apertures are bordered by a continuous, narrow lip that may be thickened by gametogenetic calcification. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatechamber arrangement:Trochospiraledge view:Inequally biconvexaperture:Umbilical
umb chamber shape:Globularcoiling axis:Lowperiphery:N/Aaperture border:Thin lip
sp chbr shape:Globularumbilicus:Narrowperiph margin shape:Moderately roundedaccessory apertures:Infralaminal
umbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedumb depth:Deepwall texture:Cancellateshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5
spiral sutures:Moderately depresseddiameter mm:width mm:breadth mm:
final-whorl chambers:4.0-4.0

Biogeography and Palaeobiology

Geographic distribution: Known from tropical to mid latitude sites. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Low to middle latitudes; based on Kennett & Srinivasan (1983)

Isotope paleobiology: No data available. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 4 - Open ocean sub-thermocline. Based on very light δ13C and very heavy δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Keller (1985); Pearson et al. (1997b); Wade et al. (2007); Pearson & Wade (2009).

Phylogenetic relations: Catapsydrax africanus probably evolved from C. howei in the late middle Eocene by developing a less inflated bulla with smaller infralaminal apertures opening onto the sutures. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Zone E13 (middle part; Abdel-Kireem, 1983) to Zone E15 (Blow and Banner, 1962). [Olsson et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): within (-Ma, top in "Holocene" stage). Data source:
First occurrence (base): within (-Ma, base in stage). Data source:

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Olsson et al. 2006 - Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, chapter 5, p. 71


Bermudez, P.J., (1937). Nuevas especies de Foraminiferos del Eoceno de las cercanias de Guanajay, provincia Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Memorias de la Sociedad Cubana de Historia Natural, 11(4): 237-248.

Bermudez, P.J., (1961). Contribucion al estudio de las Globigerinidea de la region Caribe-Antillana (Paleoceno-Reciente). Mem. III Congreso Geol. Venez. Editorial Sucre, Caracas, 1119-1393 pp.

Blow, W.H. & Banner, F.T., (1962). The mid-Tertiary (Upper Eocene to Aquitanian) Globigerinaceae. In: Eames, F.E. et al. (Editors), Fundamentals of mid-Tertiary Stratigraphical Correlation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 61-151.

Cushman, J.A. & Bermudez, P.J., (1937). Futher new species of foraminifera from the Eocene of Cuba. Contributions From the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Reseach, 13(1): 1-29.

Fleisher, R.L., (1974). Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera and biostratigraphy, Arabian Sea, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 23A. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 23: 1001-1072.

Huber, B.T., (1991). Paleogene and early Neogene planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy of ODP Leg 119 Sites 738 and 744, Kerguelen Plateau (southern Indian Ocean). Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, 119: 427-449.

Kennett & Srivinasan 1983 [sorry, not in our bibliography yet]

Loeblich, A.R., Jr. & Tappan, H., (1957). Planktonic foraminifera of Paleocene and early Eocene Age from the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains. In: Loeblich, A.R., Jr. et al. (Editors), Studies in Foraminifera, U.S. National Museum Bulletin 215. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 173-198.

Loeblich, A.R. & Tappan, H., (1957). Woodringina, a new foraminiferal genus (Heterohelicidae) from the Paleocene of Alabama. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences., 47: 39-40.

Olsson, R.K.; Pearson, P.N. & Huber, B.T., (2006). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Catapsydrax, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Paragloborotalia, Parasubbotina, and Pseudoglobigerinella n. gen. In: Pearson, P.N. et al. (Editors), Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Special Publication 41. Cushman Foundation Special Publication. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, pp. 67-110.

Premoli Silva 1991 [sorry, not in our bibliography yet]

Spezzaferri, S., (1994). Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy and taxonomy of the Oligocene and lower Miocene in the oceanic record. An overview. Palaeontographia Italica, 81: 1-187.


Catapsydrax dissimilis compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 18-8-2017

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