Globigerina officinalis


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> spinose -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerina -> Globigerina officinalis
Sister taxa: G. officinalis,

Taxonomy

Citation: Globigerina officinalis Subbotina 1953
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerina officinalis
Synonyms:
Taxonomic discussion: Globigerina officinalis appears to be the initial species in the evolution of the genus Globigerina. The development of Globigerina (bulloides-type) wall texture is observed in Subbotina crociapertura Blow, which first appears in Zone P9. Subbotina crociapertura, however, retains the basic large subbotinid test morphology and has a distinctive umbilical-extraumbilical hook-shaped aperture, which suggests a morphologic trend away from the Globigerina test morphology. The origin of the genus is most likely derived from a closely related subbotinid in which the bulloides wall first evolved, Subbotina roesnaesensis n. sp.
Globigerina officinalis is little used by workers in the Eocene, which may be due to its small size and lack of biostratigraphic value. Blow and Banner (1962) erected two subspecies of Globigerina praebulloides Blow, G. praebulloides leroyi and G. praebulloides occlusa. Globigerina praebulloides leroyi (their pl. 9, figs. R-T) has a bulloides wall texture but G. praebulloides occlusa has a cancellate wall texture, which excludes it from Globigerina. Globigerina praebulloides Blow (described from the middle Miocene) has a larger, more open aperture, and a more rapid increase in chamber size than does G. praebulloides leroyi. The latter is more similar to G. officinalis in having a smaller more umbilically restricted aperture and in the slower rate of chamber size increase. Subbotina (1953) stressed the variability in size of the ultimate chamber of G. officinalis and illustrated this range of variation in a suite of specimens (holotype and originals). One of the originals (= paratype?; Subbotina, 1953, pl. 11, fig. 3a-c) shows a larger ultimate chamber than the holotype (Subbotina, 1953, pl. 11, fig. 1 a-c). G. praebulloides leroyi closely resembles Subbotina’s figure 2 a-c. Thus, there is a moderate range of variability in the initial lineage of Globigerina and given current information it is preferable to treat these morphotypes as a single species, G. officinalis. Globigerina praebulloides was derived from G. officinalis in the early Oligocene and became the stem species for the radiation of Globigerina in the Oligocene. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerina officinalis;
Globigerina praebulloides leroyi;

Type images:

Short diagnosis: This small species is characterized by its globular, slightly embracing, chambers with a moderately high-arched aperture bordered by a thickened imperforate rim, and its bulloides-type wall texture. It is distinguished from Globigerina praebulloides by its less gaping aperture and slower rate of chamber enlargement.

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.

Description


Diagnostic characters: This small species is characterized by its globular, slightly embracing, chambers with a moderately high-arched aperture bordered by a thickened imperforate rim, and its bulloides-type wall texture. It is distinguished from Globigerina praebulloides by its less gaping aperture and slower rate of chamber enlargement. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Wall type: Normal perforate, spinose, bulloides-type wall structure. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Test morphology: Test low trochospiral, lobulate in outline, chambers globular; in spiral view 4 globular, slightly embracing chambers in ultimate whorl, increasing rapidly in size, sutures moderately depressed, straight, last 4 chambers make up about three fifths of the test size; in umbilical view 3½ globular, slightly embracing chambers, increasing rapidly in size, sutures moderately depressed, straight, umbilicus small, open, enclosed by surrounding chambers, aperture umbilical, a low to high arch bordered by an imperforate rim; in edge view chambers globular in shape, slightly embracing. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Size: Maximum diameter of holotype 0.46 mm, thickness 0.32 mm. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Lobatecoiling axis:Lowchamber arrangement:Trochospiralumbilicus:Narrow
edge view:Equally biconvexumbilical or test sutures:Moderately depressedspiral sutures:Moderately depressedshell porosity:Finely Perforate: 1-2.5
wall texture:Spinoseaperture:Umbilicalaperture border:Thin lipaccessory apertures:None
periphery:N/Aumb chamber shape:Globularsp chbr shape:Globularperiph margin shape:Broadly rounded
umb depth:Deepdiameter mm:0.46width mm:breadth mm:0.32
final-whorl chambers:3.5-4.0

Biogeography and Palaeobiology


Geographic distribution: Distributed in low to mid latitudes. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Low to middle latitudes; based on Olsson et al. (2006a)

Isotope paleobiology: Recorded by Pearson and others (2001) with relatively negative ∂18O and positive ∂13C suggesting a shallow water habitat. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 1 - Open ocean mixed-layer tropical/subtropical, with symbionts. Based on very heavy δ13C and relatively light δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Pearson et al. (2001a)

Phylogenetic relations: Probably evolved from Subbotina roesnaesensis n. sp. in the
middle Eocene. It gave rise to Globigerina praebulloides in the early Oligocene. [Olsson et al. 2006]

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Zone E10 into the Oligocene. [Olsson et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): within (-Ma, top in "Holocene" stage). Data source:
First occurrence (base): within E10 zone (41.89-43.23Ma, base in Lutetian stage). Data source: Eocene Atlas

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Olsson et al. 2006 - Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, chapter 6, p. 114

References:

Blow, W.H. & Banner, F.T., (1962). The mid-Tertiary (Upper Eocene to Aquitanian) Globigerinaceae. In: Eames, F.E. et al. (Editors), Fundamentals of mid-Tertiary Stratigraphical Correlation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 61-151.

Blow, W.H., (1969). Late middle Eocene to Recent planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. In: Bronnimann, P. and Renz, H.H. (Editors), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Planktonic Microfossils, Geneva, 1967, Leiden, Netherlands, pp. 380-381.

Blow, W.H., (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1413 pp.

Olsson, R.K.; Hemleben, C.; Huber, B.T. & Berggren, W.A., (2006). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Globigerina, Globoturborotalita, Subbotina, and Turborotalita. In: Pearson, P.N. et al. (Editors), Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Special Publication 41. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, pp. 111-168.

Olsson, R.K.; Pearson, P.N. & Huber, B.T., (2006). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Eocene Catapsydrax, Globorotaloides, Guembelitrioides, Paragloborotalia, Parasubbotina, and Pseudoglobigerinella n. gen. In: Pearson, P.N. et al. (Editors), Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Special Publication 41. Cushman Foundation Special Publication. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, pp. 67-110.

Poag, C.W. & Commeau, J.A., (1995). Paleocene to middle Miocene planktic foraminifera of the southwestern Salisbury Embayment, Virginia and Maryland: Biostratigraphy, allostratigraphy, and sequence stratigraphy. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 25: 134-155.

Subbotina, N., (1953). Foraminiferes fossiles d'URSS Globigerinidae, Globorotaliidae, Hantkeninidae. Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres, 2239: 1-144.


Globigerina officinalis compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 30-5-2017

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