Globigerinatheka mexicana


Classification: pf_cenozoic -> spinose -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinatheka -> Globigerinatheka mexicana
Sister taxa: G. barri, G. curryi, G. euganea, G. index, G. korotkovi, G. kugleri, G. luterbacheri, G. mexicana, G. semiinvoluta, G. subconglobata, G. tropicalis, G. sp.,

Taxonomy

Citation: Globigerinatheka mexicana (Cushman 1925)
Rank: Species
Basionym: Globigerina mexicana
Synonyms:
Taxonomic discussion: Originally described as Globigerinoides semi-involutus by Keijzer, the hyphen has been removed (ICZN, Art. 32.5) and the ending has been changed to agree in gender with Globigerinatheka (ICZN, Art. 31.2). Bolli (1957) designated hypotypes of G. semiinvoluta from the type locality (Navet Formation, Trinidad). Blow and Saito (1968a) suggested that G. semiinvoluta was synonymous with G. mexicana. However, we recognise G. semiinvoluta and G. mexicana as taxonomically and stratigraphically distinct, although transitional forms occur in uppermost Zone E13 to lowermost Zone E14. Blow (1979, p. 788) stated that G. korotkovi is taxonomically indistinguishable from G. semiinvoluta even though the former species is high spired; he also included G. lindiensis (here considered a synonym of G. tropicalis) saying it is not worth differentiating this species taxonomically from G. semiinvoluta (p. 791) as well as G. rubriformis (here G. korotkovi) that he considered as immature specimens of G. semiinvoluta (p. 813). Blow (1979) included G. semiinvoluta in the genus Porticulasphaera, emended, here considered a junior synonym of Globigerinatheka. Toumarkine (1975) attributed to G. semiinvoluta (and illustrated) two small specimens from Shatsky Rise that exhibit a very rough surface. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Catalog entries: Globigerina mexicana;
Globigerinatheka kutchensis;

Type images:

Short diagnosis: Globigerinatheka semiinvoluta differs from all the other globular globigerinathekids by its very inflated enveloping last chamber, its large and noticeably rimmed, circular secondary apertures, much shorter initial trochospire and mainly indistinct sutures. Globigerinatheka mexicana and G. semiinvoluta differ by the circular apertures with distinctive rims in G. semiinvoluta, which are not present in G. mexicana. G. semiinvoluta is distinguished from G. tropicalis by an embracing final chamber.

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.

Description


Diagnostic characters: Globigerinatheka semiinvoluta differs from all the other globular globigerinathekids by its very inflated enveloping last chamber, its large and noticeably rimmed, circular secondary apertures, much shorter initial trochospire and mainly indistinct sutures. Globigerinatheka mexicana and G. semiinvoluta differ by the circular apertures with distinctive rims in G. semiinvoluta, which are not present in G. mexicana. G. semiinvoluta is distinguished from G. tropicalis by an embracing final chamber. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Wall type: pores about 4 mm in diameter.

Test morphology: Test very close to spherical, early chambers arranged in a low trochospire composed of at least 6 subglobular chambers initially gradually increasing in size as added, then increasing much more rapidly; last chamber hemispherical constituting almost half of the entire test totally covering the umbilical side of the earlier chambers; sutures poorly visible except between the last two to three chambers where they are very slightly depressed; three visible apertures at the base of the last chamber, small to medium-sized arches close to subcircular, apparently located at the junctions of previous chambers. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Size: The diameter of the holotype measures 0.30 mm, much smaller than that indicated by Cushman (1925, diameter 0.40-0.60 mm). [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Character matrix

test outline:Circularcoiling axis:Lowchamber arrangement:Trochospiralumbilicus:Narrow
edge view:Equally biconvexumbilical or test sutures:Weakly depressedspiral sutures:Weakly depressedshell porosity:Macroperforate: >2.5
wall texture:aperture:Biaperturalaperture border:N/Aaccessory apertures:None
periphery:N/Aumb chamber shape:Globularsp chbr shape:Globularperiph margin shape:Broadly rounded
umb depth:Deepdiameter mm:0.3width mm:breadth mm:
final-whorl chambers:3.0-3.5

Biogeography and Palaeobiology


Geographic distribution: Globigerinatheka semiinvoluta is common in low latitudes, with well developed large specimens, and extends to temperate latitudes with smaller specimens. It is absent in high latitudes. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 summary: Low to middle latitudes; based on Premoli Silva et al. (2006)

Isotope paleobiology: Oxygen and carbon isotopic data indicate that G. semiinvoluta occupied a mixed layer habitat (Poore and Matthews, 1984; Pearson and others, 2001; Wade and Kroon, 2002, referred to as G. mexicana). [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]
Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 1 - Open ocean mixed-layer tropical/subtropical, with symbionts. Based on very heavy δ13C and relatively light δ18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Boersma et al. (1987); Wade (2004)

Phylogenetic relations: Blow and Banner (1962) suggested that G. semiinvoluta evolved from G. tropicalis, a relationship that is not supported here. In the western North Atlantic (ODP Site 1052), G. semiinvoluta appears to descend from G. mexicana, a phylogeny also proposed by Bolli (1972) and Blow (1979). The distinct rimmed apertures and less depressed sutures developed in the upper middle Eocene to lower upper Eocene with transitional forms evident in uppermost E13 to lowermost E14. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Notes: Globigerinatheka semiinvoluta evolved in the latest middle Eocene. The first forms occur just below the top of Zone E13 and its extinction marks the base of Zone E15. [Premoli Silva et al. 2006]
Last occurrence (top): within E14 zone (35.89-37.99Ma, top in Priabonian stage). Data source: Eocene Atlas
First occurrence (base): within E9 zone (43.23-43.85Ma, base in Lutetian stage). Data source: Eocene Atlas

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Premoli Silva et al. 2006 - Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, chapter 7, p. 195

References:

Baumann, P., (1970). Mikropalaentologische und stratigraphische Untersuchungen der obereozaenen-oligozaenen Scaglia im zentralen Apennin (Italien). Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae, 63: 1133-1211.

Berggren 1992 [sorry, not in our bibliography yet]

Blow, W.H. & Banner, F.T., (1962). The mid-Tertiary (Upper Eocene to Aquitanian) Globigerinaceae. In: Eames, F.E. et al. (Editors), Fundamentals of mid-Tertiary Stratigraphical Correlation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 61-151.

Blow, W.H. & Saito, T., (1968). The morphology and taxonomy of Globigerina mexicana Cushman, 1925. Micropaleontology, 14(3): 357-360.

Blow, W.H., (1969). Late middle Eocene to Recent planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. In: Bronnimann, P. and Renz, H.H. (Editors), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Planktonic Microfossils, Geneva, 1967, Leiden, Netherlands, pp. 380-381.

Blow, W.H., (1979). The Cainozoic Globigerinida: A study of the morphology, taxonomy, evolutionary relationships and stratigraphical distribution of some Globigerinida (mainly Globigerinacea). E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1413 pp.

Boersma, A.; Premoli Silva, I. & Shackleton, N.J., (1987). Atlantic Eocene planktonic foraminiferal paleohydrographic indicators and stable isotope paleoceanography. Paleoceanography, 2: 287-331.

Bolli, H.M., (1957). Planktonic foraminifera from the Eocene Navet and San Fernando formations of Trinidad. In: Loeblich, A.R., Jr. et al. (Editors), Studies in Foraminifera: U.S. National Museum Bulletin 215. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 155-172.

Bolli, H.M., (1972). The genus Globigerinatheka Bronnimann. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 2(3): 109-136.

Brönnimann, P., (1952). Globigerinoita and Globigerinatheka, new genera from the Tertiary of Trinidad, B.W.I. Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication, 3(1): 25-28.

Cushman, J.A., (1925). New foraminifera from the Upper Eocene of Mexico. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Reseach, 1(1): 4-9.

Cushman, J.A., (1927). Some characteristic Mexican fossil foraminifera. Journal of Paleontology, 1(2): 147-172.

Finlay, H.J., (1939). New Zealand foraminifera: Key species in stratigraphy - no. 2. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 69(1): 89-128.

Fleisher, R.L., (1974). Cenozoic planktonic foraminifera and biostratigraphy, Arabian Sea, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 23A. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 23: 1001-1072.

Loeblich, A.R., Jr. & Tappan, H., (1957). Planktonic foraminifera of Paleocene and early Eocene Age from the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains. In: Loeblich, A.R., Jr. et al. (Editors), Studies in Foraminifera, U.S. National Museum Bulletin 215. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 173-198.

McKeel, D.R. & Lipps, J.J., (1975). Eocene and Oligocene planktonic foraminifera from the Central and Southern Oregon Coast Range. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 5(4): 249-269.

Mohan, M. & Soodan, K.S., (1970). Middle Eocene planktonic foraminiferal zonation of Kutch, India. Micropaleontology, 16: 37-46.

Nishi, H. & Chaproniere, G.C.H., (1994). Eocene-Oligocene subtropical planktonic foraminifers at Site 841,. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientifc Results, 135: 245-266.

Poore, R.Z. & Brabb, E.E., (1977). Eocene and Oligocene planktonic foraminifera from the Upper Butano sandstone and type San Lorenzo formation, Santa Cruz Mountains, California. Journal of Foraminiferal Research, 7(4): 249-272.

Premoli Silva, I.; Wade, B.S. & Pearson, P.N., (2006). Taxonomy, biostratigraphy, and phylogeny of Globigerinatheka and Orbulinoides. In: Pearson, P.N. et al. (Editors), Atlas of Eocene Planktonic Foraminifera, Cushman Foundation Special Publication 41. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas, pp. 169-212.

Pujol, C., (1983). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the South-Western Atlantic (Rio Grande Rise): Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 72. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 72: 623-673.

Raju, D.S.N., (1971). Upper Eocene to Early Miocene planktonic foraminifera from the subsurface sediments in Cauvery Basin, India. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, Sonderband, 17: 7-68.

Saito, T., (1962). Eocene planktonic foraminifera from Hahajima (Hillsborough Island). Trans. Proc. Pal. Soc. Japan, 1(45): 209-225.

Samuel, O. & Salaj, J., (1968). Microbiostratigraphy and Foraminifera of the Slovak Carpathian Paleogene. Geologicky Ustav Dionyza Stura, Bratislava: 1-232.

Stainforth, R.M.; Lamb, J.L.; Luterbacher, H.; Beard, J.H. & Jeffords, R.M., (1975). Cenozoic planktonic foraminiferal zonation and characteristics of index forms. The University of Kansas Paleontological Contributions, 62: 1-425.

Toumarkine, M., (1971). Etude des Foraminifères planctoniques de deux sondages (H-S49 et PGYT-31) dans l’ Eocène de la Montagne du Bakony (Transdanubie, Hongrie). Annales Instituti Geologici Publici Hungarici, 54: 283-299.

Toumarkine, M., (1975). Middle and Late Eocene planktonic foraminifera from the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Leg 32 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 32: 735-751.

Toumarkine, M., (1978). Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Paleogene of Sites 360 to 364 and the Neogene of Sites 362A, 363 and 364 Leg 40,. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, 40: 679-721.

Toumarkine, M., (1983). Les Foraminifères planctoniques de l’Eocène moyen et supérieur des régions tropicales à temperées chaudes. PhD Thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 6, 83-05, 1-219 pp.

Wade, B.S., (2004). Planktonic Foraminiferal biostratigraphy and mechanisms in the extinction of Morozovella in the Late Middle Eocene. Marine Micropaleontology, 51: 23-38.


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Globigerinatheka mexicana compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 23-7-2017

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