Globigerinoides extremus

NB TAXA WHICH ORIGINATE IN THE OLIGOCENE ARE NOT INCLUDED YET
Classification: pf_neogene -> Globigerinidae -> Globigerinoides -> Globigerinoides extremus
Sister taxa: G. altiaperturus, G. bulloideus, G. conglobatus, G. diminutus, G. elongatus, G. extremus, G. mitra, G. obliquus, G. parawoodi, G. ruber, G. seigliei, G. subquadratus, G. tenellus, G. white, G. sp.,

Taxonomy

Citation: Globigerinoides extremus Bolli & Bermudez 1965
Rank: species
Basionym: Globigerinoides obliquus extremus Bolli & Bermudez 1965

Catalog entries: Globigerinoides obliquus extremus;

Type images:

NB The short diagnoses are used in the tables of daughter-taxa to act as quick summaries of the differences between e.g. species of one genus. They have initially been copied from the diagnostic characters/distinguishing features sections of the Eocene and Paleocene Atlases, they will be edited as the site is developed.

Description


Diagnostic characters: Medium to high trochospiral, final whorl distinctly compressed

Aperture: : Primary aperture interiomarginal umbilical distinct arch of medium height. Supplementary sutural apertures on spiral side [Aze 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]


Wall type: Spinose; Cancellate [Aze 2011]

Test morphology: Test medium to high trochospire, all chambers of the final whorl distinctly compressed, the four chambers of the final whorl increasing regularly in size as added, but the last one may be somewhat reduced and distinctly flattened ; sutures on both sides radial to slightly curved and depressed; sur- face distinctly pitted, primary aperture interiomarginal, umbilical, a distinct arch of medium height; chambers of the final whorl with one supplementary aperture opposite the primary one. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Biogeography and Palaeobiology


Geographic distribution: Tropical to cool subtropical. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Isotope paleobiology: Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 1 - Open ocean mixed-layer tropical/subtropical, with symbionts. Based on very heavy ∂13C and relatively light ∂18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Keller (1985)

Phylogenetic relations: Gs. extremus evolved from Gs. obliquus by developing laterally compressed chambers in the final whorl and a distinctly flattened final chamber. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): in upper part of PL6 [Atl.] zone (78% up, 2Ma, in Gelasian stage). Data source: Wade et al. (2011), additional event; position within zone determined by linear interpolation from data in table 1 of Wade et al. (2011).
First occurrence (base): in upper part of M13a subzone (73% up, 8.9Ma, in Tortonian stage). Data source: Wade et al. (2011), additional event; position within zone determined by linear interpolation from data in table 1 of Wade et al. (2011).

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Kennett & Srinivisan 1983, p.58

References:

Aze, T.; Ezard, T.H.G.; Purvis, A.; Coxall, H.K.; Stewart, D.R.M.; Wade, B.S. & Pearson, P.N.P., (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews, 86: 900-927.

Bolli, H.M. & Bermudez, P.J., (1965). Zonation based on planktonic foraminifera of middle Miocene to Pliocene warm-water sediments. Bol. Informativo, Asoc. Venez. Geol., Min. Petrol., 8(5): 121-149.

Keller, G., (1985). Depth stratification of planktonic foraminifers in the Miocene Ocean. In: Kennett, J.P. (Editor), The Miocene Ocean: Paleoceanography and Biogeography. GSA Memoir The Geological Society of America, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 1-337.

Kennett, J.P. & Srinivasan, M.S., (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1-265 pp.


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Globigerinoides extremus compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 16-12-2017

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