Globorotalia crassula

NB TAXA WHICH ORIGINATE IN THE OLIGOCENE ARE NOT INCLUDED YET
Classification: pf_neogene -> Globorotalidae -> Globorotalia -> truncatulinoides lineage -> Globorotalia crassula
Sister taxa: G. cavernula, G. crassaconica, G. crassaformis, G. crassula, G. excelsa, G. hessi, G. oceanica, G. pachytheca, G. ronda, G. tenuitheca, G. tosaensis, G. truncatulinoides, G. viola,

Taxonomy

Citation: Globorotalia crassula Cushman & Stewart 1930
Rank: species
Basionym: Globorotalia crassula Cushman & Stewart 1930, in Cushman et al. 1930
Type species: (Truncorotalia)
Synonyms:
Variants:

Catalog entries: Globorotalia crassula;
Globorotalia crotonensis; Globorotalia hirsuta aemiliana;

Type images:

Description


Diagnostic characters: Very low trochospiral, spiral side almost flat, umbilical side convex
Aperture: Interiomarginal umbilical-extraumbilical low arch with lip [Aze 2011, based on Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Wall type: Non-spinose; Smooth [Aze 2011]

Test morphology: Test very low trochospiral, spiral side almost flat, umbilical side convex; equa-torial periphery lobulate, subquadrate, axial periphery subacute to subrounded, peripheral thickening suggests presence of an imperforate keel; 4 chambers in the final whorl, uniformly in size as added, more inflated on umbilical side than on spiral side; sutures on spiral side curved and gently depressed, on umbilical side radial to curved and depressed; surface finely perforate, pustulate on early chambers; umbilicus narrow, aperture interiomarginal, umbilical-extraumbilical, a low arch with a lip. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Biogeography and Palaeobiology


Geographic distribution: Temperate to warm subtropical. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Isotope paleobiology: Aze et al. 2011 ecogroup 4 - Open ocean sub-thermocline. Based on very light ∂13C and very heavy ∂18O. Sources cited by Aze et al. 2011 (appendix S3): Shackleton & Vincent (1978)

Phylogenetic relations: Gr. (T.) crassula differs from Gr. (H.) cibaoensis by its more nearly planoconvex test and more strongly angled periphery. Blow (1969) distinguished less tightly coiled forms with lower umbilical vaulting as Gr. (T.) viola. He also considered that Gr. viola was essentially restricted to the tropics, while the closely related form, Gr. crassula, was restricted to the temperate areas. We consider that Gr. viola is probably no more than a tropical variant or subspecies of Gr. (T .) crassaformis.
Globorotalia aemiliana Colalongo and Sartoni, and Globorotalia crotonensis Conato and Follador are morphologically similar to Gr. (T.) crassula and probably represent no more than phenotypic variants or subspecies of this form.
Gr. ( T.) crassula may have evolved from Gr. (H.) cibaoensis in temperate-Subantarctic areas of the South Pacific and is the possible ancestor of Gr. (T.) crassaformis (Galloway and Wissler). At DSDP Site 281, we have observed gradation between Gr. (H.) cibanoesis and Gr. (T.) crassula. A possible ancestry between Gr. (T.) crassula and Gr. (T.) crassaformis is inferred. [Kennett & Srinivasan 1983]

Biostratigraphic distribution

Geological Range:
Last occurrence (top): within N21 zone (1.93-3.10Ma, top in Gelasian stage). Data source: Chaisson & Pearson (1997)
First occurrence (base): within N18 zone (5.20-5.72Ma, base in Messinian stage). Data source: Chaisson & Pearson (1997)

Plot of occurrence data:

Primary source for this page: Kennett & Srinivisan 1983, p.144

References:

Aze, T.; Ezard, T.H.G.; Purvis, A.; Coxall, H.K.; Stewart, D.R.M.; Wade, B.S. & Pearson, P.N.P., (2011). A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews, 86: 900-927.

Banner, F.T. & Blow, W.H., (1960). Some primary types of species belonging to the superfamily Globigerinaceae. Contributions from the Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, 11: 1-41.

Blow, W.H., (1969). Late middle Eocene to Recent planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy. In: Bronnimann, P. and Renz, H.H. (Editors), Proceedings of the First International Conference on Planktonic Microfossils, Geneva, 1967, Leiden, Netherlands, pp. 380-381.

Cushman, J.A.; Stewart, R.E. & Stewart, K.C., (1930). Tertiary foraminifera from Humboldt county, California. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, 6(2): 41-94.

Kennett, J.P. & Srinivasan, M.S., (1983). Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera. Hutchinson Ross Publishing Co., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, 1-265 pp.

Shackleton, N.J. & Vincent, E., (1978). Oxygen and carbon isotope studies in Recent Foraminifera from the southeast Indian Ocean. Marine Micropaleontology, 3: 1-13.


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Globorotalia crassula compiled by the pforams@mikrotax project team viewed: 18-8-2017

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